Objective To investigate the changes of low back pain (LBP) and spinal sagittal parameters in patients with unilateral Crowe type Ⅳ developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Methods The clinical data of 30 patients who met the selection criteria between October 2018 and March 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into LBP group (16 cases) and control group (14 cases) according to whether there was LBP before operation. There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients in gender, age, body mass index, affected sides, preoperative Harris score (P>0.05). Full-length lateral X-ray films of the spine were taken within 1 week before operation and at 1 year after operation, and the following imaging indicators were measured: sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL ), spinal tilt (ST), spine-sacral angle (SSA), sagittal vertebral axis (SVA). The visual analogue scale (VAS) score, lumbar Oswestry disability index (ODI), the Harris score of the hip joint before operation and at 1 year after operation, and the occurrence of postoperative complications were collected and analysed. Results In the LBP group, LBP was relieved to varying degrees at 1 year after operation, of which 13 patients (81.3%) had complete LBP remission; VAS score decreased from 4.9±2.3 preoperatively to 0.3±0.8, ODI decreased from 33.5±22.6 preoperatively to 1.3±2.9, the differences were all significant (t=7.372, P=0.000; t=5.499, P=0.000). There was no new chronic LBP in the control group during follow-up. The Harris scores of the two groups significantly improved when compared with those before operation (P<0.05); there was no significant difference between the two groups at 1 year after operation (t=0.421, P=0.677). There was no significant difference in imaging indexes between the two groups before operation and the difference between pre- and post-operation (P>0.05). At 1 year after operation, ST and SVA in the LBP group, SSA in the control group, and SS in the two groups significantly improved when compared with those before operation (P<0.05); there was no significant difference in the other indexes between the two groups before and after operation (P>0.05). Conclusion Unilateral Crowe type Ⅳ DDH patients with LBP before operation were all relieved of LBP after THA. The relief of LBP may be related to the improvement of spinal balance, but not to lumbar lordosis and its changes.