• 1. Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210029, P.R.China;
  • 2. Department of Orthopedics, Cangzhou Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine-Western Medicine·Hebei, Cangzhou Hebei, 061000, P.R.China;
SHEN Jirong, Email: joint66118@sina.com
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Objective To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the modified transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), clarify the key points of the operation, and then explore the effectiveness of modified transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy in the treatment of ONFH assisted by virtual reality (VR) technology. Methods A 70-year-old adult female cadaver without formaldehyde fixation was taken. It was confirmed by anatomical study and simulated operation that the modified transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy was suitable for type C1 (patients with involvement of the lateral column of the femoral head but partial integrity) classified by the Japanese Osteonecrosis Investigation Committee (JIC). Between October 2018 and August 2020, 11 patients (17 hips) with ONFH who met the selection criteria were treated with modified transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy. VR technology was used to simulate varus osteotomy before operation to predict the angle of valgus of lower limbs and pronation of femoral head. Osteotomy, valgus, and pronation were performed according to the results of preoperative planning. After operation, X-ray films were used to evaluate the changes of varus and neck-shaft angle after VR assisted surgery, and Harris score was used to evaluate the hip function. Results The anteroposterior pelvic X-ray film was rechecked at 2 days after operation, of which 3 hips were consistent with the planned varus angle of VR preoperative planning, and the error value of varus angle of the remaining 14 hips was 1°-4°. The difference between VR preoperative planning and 2 days after operation was 6°-16°. All 11 patients were followed up 11-28 months, with an average of 19.2 months. All incisions healed by first intension. During the follow-up, 1 case (1 hip) developed greater trochanter fracture at 2 months after operation and was treated with open reduction and plate and screw internal fixation; 1 case (1 hip) had delayed healing at osteotomy at 4 months after operation and healed at 3 months after local injection of platelet rich plasma and oral supplementation of kidney blood-strengthening soup. At last follow-up, 17 hip osteotomies healed. The Harris score was 84.0±5.6, which was significantly higher than that before operation (57.2±5.5) (t=–14.107, P=0.000); hip function was excellent in 2 hips, good in 13 hips, and fair in 2 hips. Conclusion The modified transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy for the treatment of ONFH is theoretically feasible, and the short-term effectiveness of this operation combined with VR technology is satisfactory.