• Department of Orthopedics, Senior Department of Orthopedics, the Fourth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100037, P.R.China;
ZHANG Hong, Email: zhanghongmd@163.com
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Objective  To investigate the effects of femoral offset and mechanical axis of the lower extremity on hip after osteotomy for adult developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Methods  A clinical data of 62 adult patients with DDH (62 hips), who underwent periacetabular osteotomy combined with femoral osteotomy between January 2016 and May 2019 and met selective criteria, was retrospectively analyzed. There were 6 males and 56 females. The age ranged from 18 to 38 years, with an average of 24.4 years. Body mass index ranged from 15.8 to 31.8 kg/m2, with an average of 21.8 kg/m2. There were 44 cases of Hartofilakidis typeⅠ and 18 cases of typeⅡ. According to the modified Tönnis osteoarthritis staging, 46 cases were stage 0 and 16 cases were stageⅠ. There were 13 cases with pelvic anteversion, 40 cases with normal pelvis, and 9 cases with pelvic retroversion. Intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay, and complications were recorded. Postoperative hip function was evaluated by Harris score and International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT) score. The femoral offset, collo-diaphyseal angle, hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), knee valus angle, CE (Wiberg central-edge angle), anterior CE angle, and acetabular index angle were measured and the osteotomy healing was observed on X-ray films. Patients were grouped according to postoperative femoral offset (≥48 mm or <48 mm) and HKA [varus group (HKA<177°), normal group (HKA 177°-183°), and valgus group (HKA>183°)]. Harris score and iHOT score were compared between groups. Results  Intraoperative blood loss ranged from 200 to 1 550 mL, with an average of 476 mL. The length of hospital stay ranged from 8 to 21 days, with an average of 13.3 days. All incisions healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 2.0-4.5 years, with an average of 2.8 years. At 1 year after operation, the Harris score and iHOT score of the hip joint significantly increased when compared with those before operation (P<0.05); there were significant differences in the femoral offset, collo-diaphyseal angle, HKA, knee valus angle, CE angle, anterior CE angle, and acetabular index angle between pre- and post-operation (P>0.05). According to the modified Tönnis osteoarthritis staging, 38 cases were stage 0 and 24 cases were stageⅠ; and there was no significant difference between pre- and post-operation (χ2=2.362, P=0.124). There were 11 cases with pelvic anteversion, 38 cases with normal pelvis, and 13 cases with pelvic retroversion, showing no significant difference when compared with that before operation (χ2=0.954, P=0.623). The pubic branch osteotomy did not heal in 9 cases, proximal femur osteotomy did not heal in 2 cases, and inferior pubic ramus stress fracture occurred in 5 cases. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the Harris score and iHOT score between femoral offset≥48 mm group (n=10) and femoral offset<48 mm group (n=52). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in Harris score and iHOT score between varus group (n=13), normal group (n=40), and valgus group (n=9). Conclusion  Periacetabular osteotomy combined with femoral osteotomy can improve the femoral offset and mechanical axis of the lower extremity of patients with DDH, and improve the functional score of the hip. However, excessive increase of femoral offset during femoral osteotomy is not desirable, resulting in low postoperative functional score.